You are never more than a few miles away from swamps or ponds in Massachusetts. The history of this state is a history of swamp draining. This land could not have been settled by Europeans without the eradication of the swamps. 

I am interested in these ponds and swamps for their role as incubators of life. The flora and fauna of these bodies of water are the descendants of some of the most ancient life forms. They are where life began. 

They are not always benign places for us. But their health is a barometer of the well-being of the entire ecosystem.

© 2014 by Catherine Wilcox-Titus

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